Homebrewer's Dictionary

ACETALDEHYDE
A colorless volatile liquid, CH3CHO. It can be made by oxidizing ethyl ALCOHOL. It boils at 21oC. It has a pungent, fruity smell.

ADJUNCTS
Any grain (or GRITS) or sugar other then Barely or Barely MALT Extract is considered an adjunct.

ALE
A MALT beverage fermented by YEAST known as a "top fermenter". With a wide range of color and flavor, dating back to post Neolithic period. "The Original Beer".

ALCOHOL
Alcohol is one of the primary substances formed in FERMENTATION. Ethyl alcohol in its pure form is a colorless, intoxicating. flammable liquid, chemically know as C2H5OH.

AMYLASE ENZYME
This ENZYME accelerate the HYDROLYSIS of starch to DEXTRIN and of dextrin to MALTOSE.

ANTIOXIDANT
A compound that prevents the addition of oxygen into the liquid and preventing oxidation.

ATTENUATION
A reduction in an observed correlation or because of measurement error. Used in brewing to represent the extraction in fermenting YEAST.

AUTOLYSED
The reaction of dead or dorment YEAST and its ENZYMES that break down the cells. This condition my give beer a musty taste and aroma.

BACK (BUCK)
A British brewing term that refers to a holding container for WORT or fermented beer.

BALLING
This is an old scale of measuring the density of a liquid in relation to sugar content. Balling and brix are commonly used by wine makers. The PLATO scale is very similar and is used primarily by European brewers.

CARBON DIOXIDE
A colorless, heavy gas. CO2 that does not support combustion, that dissolves in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) and that is formed by the OXIDATION of carbon-containing compounds and by the action of acid on carbonates. It is absorbed from air by green plants in the first step of photosynthesis, and it has many scientific. technical and industrial use.

CARBOXYLASE
Is the malevolent COO group or radical characteristic of a larger class organic acids. Such as acetic acid. (also see pH)

CASK CONDITIONED BEER
This refers to beer that is naturally carbonated and served from the same container. Whether it comes from a bottle, keg, or wooden casks it's all the same home made or commercial.

CHILL HAZE
A condition that arises when tannic acid combine with proteins and forms solid particles when at lower temperatures.

DEXTRIN
Any of a number of gummy carbohydrates made by the partial HYDROLYSIS of a starch and used as a adhesives or as a FERMENTATION sugar. (also see SACCHARIFICATION)

DEXTRINIZATION
The HYDROLYSIS of starch into smaller GLUCOSE molecules or carbohydrates.

DIASTATIC ENZYMES
A set of ENZYME of proteolytic that are broken into alpha and beta AMYLASE.

DIASTATIC MALT SYRUP (D.M.S.)
This MALT extract is high in alpha and beta AMYLASE. It is often used in recipes that have a high adjunct content.

DRY HOPPING
A method of adding small amounts of hops to a beer during FERMENTATION. During which the beta acids are broken down and the hop oils are released.

ENZYME
One of a complex proteinaceous substance of high molecular weight formed in and produced by living matter which arc responsible for promoting the chemical reactions upon which all life exists.

ESTERS
One of a class of compounds that on HYDROLYSIS yield one or more molecule of an acid and one or more molecules of an ALCOHOL and that are often fragrant liquids used as constituents of perfumes and as flavoring materials.

ETHANOL
Is the main ALCOHOL in any sugar fermented beverage. Also an ALCOHOL additive said to raise gasoline octane rating.

FERMATOLOGY
Defines the profession or practices of making a fermented food product.

FERMENTATION
A chemical change produced by ENZYME, particularly an energy-producing transformation of carbohydrate material yielding ALCOHOL'S, acids and carbon dioxide.

FIRKIN CASK
An old term of English origin to describe a small wooden cask (barrel) of approximately 9 Imperial gallons.

FLOCCULATION
The separation of suspended solids during FERMENTATION, by chemically created clumps of floc.

GERMINATION
When grain is allowed to sprout, it creates the small amount of sugar from its starch do to its ENZYMES. In brewing this process is called Malting.

GLUCOSE
A sugar, C6H12O6, found in honey, grapes and sweet fruits, and also made artificially from carbohydrates, starch. by HYDROLYSIS. It is normally the chief source of body energy and in its simple state is the form in which carbohydrate is assimilated by the animal body. (see SACCHARIFICATION)

GLYCERIN
Also know as glycerol. A sweet, viscous hygroscopic ALCOHOL, CH2OH CHOH - CH2OH, that occurs naturally in the combined forms as glycerides and is recovered in the manufacture of soaps from fats. It is an important industrial chemical used chiefly as a solvent. lubricant. and as a raw material for the manufacture of nitroglycerin.

GRITS
This is a brewing term to describe crushed grains. In many whole grain recipes you will see the words "mash the grits". This means to process the crushed grains into sweet WORT.

HEXOKINASE
The first stage of alcoholic FERMENTATION is the HYDROLYSIS of carbohydrate into triose sugars C3H6O3.

HOGSHEAD CASK
An old term of English origin to describe a large wooden cask (barrel) of approximately 54 Imperial gallons.

HOT BREAK
This is a noticeable separation of protein called TRUB in the WORT during the ending stages of the MASHING process.

HYDROLYSIS
A chemical reaction in water in which the regent other than water is decomposed and hydrogen and hydroxyl are added usually with the formation of two or more new compounds.

HYDROMETER
An instrument for measuring the SPECIFIC GRAVITY of a liquid, using the principle of flotation. Also know as a Saccharimetcr or Saccharometer.

ISOMER HOP EXTRACT (ISO-HOP)
This is a liquid that alpha acid (the bittering element of hops). are extracted into. This liquid is often used at bottling time to increase hops flavor and aroma.

KILDERKIN
An old term of English origin to describe a medium wooden cask (barrel) of approximately 18 Imperial gallons.

KRAEUSEN
This refers to the foam that is created on top of beer during FERMENTATION. The Germans use this term quite often.

KRAEUSENING
The method of mixing unfermented WORT with the fermented beer before kegging or bottling.

LAGER
A MALT beverage fermented by YEAST known as a bottom fermenter (SACCHAROMYCES Uvarum). With a wide range of color and flavors with Germanic origin. The word lager in German is defined as a type of storage.

LUPLIC (Alpha), LUPULIUIC (Beta) ACIDS
The acids front the lupulin glands of hops.

MALTOSE
A hard, soluble, crystalline sugars C12H22O11 formed in brewing and as an intermediate product in metabolism.

MASHING
This is a process of converting grain starch into fermentable sugars (SACCHARIFICATION). The brewer heats the crushed grains to specific temperatures to induce the ENZYME to break down the starches.

MONOCELLULAR
A singular, cellular plant. A plant without distinct stems or leaves. YEAST cells.

ORIGINAL GRAVITY (OG)
This is the SPECIFIC GRAVITY or PLATO reading of cool WORT before the yeast is added and FERMENTATION commence.

OXIDATION
A chemical reaction called oxide. Compound of oxygen with another element or with an organic radical. Reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred from one ion atom or molecule to another.

OXIDOREDUCTASE
A complex OXIDATION HYDROLYSIS that converts triose sugars into GLYCERIN and glycerin acid.

PARTS PER MILLION (PPM)
Also known as milligrams per liter (mg/L). This represents the amount of soluble material in a given liquid.

PASTEURIZATION
A process which renders liquid free of disease producing bacteria and help to prevent it from spoiling without destroying the vitamins or changing the taste. It involves heating the liquid to 145o-150o for 30 minutes. or to 164o- 168oF for 15 seconds. It is also used in the production of dairy products, wine and beer.

pH (HYDROGEN ION CONTENT)
This represents the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid. The higher the pH the lower the acid content.

PHENOLS
This element of beer is quite complex in nature. A hydroxyl precursor of tannic element that comes from the grain husk in SPARGING or produced by bad YEAST. Phenols in great amounts can give beer a medicine flavor and aroma.

PIN CASK
An old term of English origin to describe a serving wooden cask (barrel) of approximately 4.5 Imperial gallons.

PITCHING
This is an old brewing term to describe the addition of YEAST culture to the cooled WORT.

PLATO
In Germany and the US this scale represents the soluble material dissolved in a liquid. 1% Plato = .004 Specific Gravity.

PRIMER
This is a small amount of fermentable sugar that is added to the beer prior to tattling to induce carbonation.

PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES
The HYDROLYSIS of proteins to form simpler soluble produce.

PYRUVIC ACID
A product that is produced when the Enolase phase of alcoholic FERMENTATION, HYDROLYSIS the GLYCERIN acid.

RACKING
The method of siphoning WORT, beer or wine off of sediment into a new container.

SACCHARIFICATION
The Final enzymatic conversion of vegetable starch into fermentable sugars in the MASHING process.

SACCHAROMYCES
A MONOCELLULAR plant cell (yeast) that produces ENZYMES, that transform carbohydrate material into ALCOHOL, acids and CARBON DIOXIDE. There are two varieties used in most beer FERMENTATION'S. Saccharomyces Cerevisiac (ALE Yeast) and Saccharomyces Uvarum (Lager Yeast).

SPARGING
This is a method that brewers use to extract sweet WORT from the spent grains after MASHING.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SG)
This scale represents the actual weight of a liquid in comparison to pure water (1.000sg). Most brewers drop the point when referring to specific gravity (ie. l.047sg becomes 10 47).

STRIKE TEMPERATURE
Originally a old term used by British brewers to represent the water temperature prior to the addition of the grains in infusion MASHING. Nowadays it is used to refer to any desired temperature in MASHING.

TERMINAL GRAVITY (TG)
This is the ending sprite gravity of a beer. It is taken at the end of FERMENTATION, prior to priming and bottling.

TRUB
This is a coagulated protein and tannin mix that naturally forms at end of "HOT BREAK". Trub is often removed in light colored beers. to prevent CHILL HAZE.

WORT
This is the name we brewers give beer that is not yet fermenting.

ZYMASE
An ENZYME system found in YEAST and other microorganisms, which is responsible for the FERMENTATION of carbohydrates.

ZYMOLOGY
The scientific study of applied chemistry of the fermentation processes.

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